Classical computers carry out binary logical operations, based on a single state:
On or Off, True or False, 1 or 0. We call this a bit.
Quantum computing operations instead use the quantum state of an object to produce what’s known as a qubit. These states are the undefined properties of an object before they’ve been observed.
Quantum computers are able to solve certain problems with complex correlations between inputs that can be incredibly hard for traditional computers. Learning models made on quantum computers may be dramatically more powerful for select applications, potentially boasting faster computation, better generalization on less data, or both. Added to this is the fact that quantum computers can perform quantum superposition, which enables them to work on various quantum states at the same time, making any training process faster and more efficient.
Quantum computers are by nature very effective towards a large number of very relevant problems. For specific problems, they are exponentially fast: with every qubit added, the calculation power doubles. Compare this to a power-hungry High-Performance Computing (HPC) system. For specific issues such as chemical simulation, HPC systems are not well-suited. A large machine is needed, with enormous power consumption. Doubling the calculation power means doubling the investment and power consumption. That makes Quantum computers a very energy-effective solution to many relevant applications.
Quantum computing has the potential to revolutionize the research and development of molecular structures in the biopharmaceuticals industry. New drugs take a lot of time and resources to reach the market after they've been discovered. Quantum computing could speed up the R&D process significantly by making the testing less dependent on trial & error and therefore more efficient. A faster R&D timeline could get products to the right patients more quickly and more efficiently.
Classical computers struggle with optimizing portfolios for forecasted markets due to complex parameter space. Quantum computers can improve portfolio yield and reduction of administration costs through better risk analytics and forecasting.
No. Classical computers are better at some tasks than Quantum Computers (email, spreadsheets and desktop publishing to name a few). The intent of quantum computers is to be a different tool to solve different problems, not to replace classical computers.
It depends on the number of qubits it can handle, but quantum computers are expected to be at least 1000 times faster than a conventional computer. However, Google announced it already has a quantum computer that is 100 million times faster than any classical computer in its lab.
Rather than use more electricity, quantum computers will reduce power consumption anywhere from 100 up to 1000 times because quantum computers use quantum tunnelling. When you compare it 1-to-1, the cooling needed may seem like it uses more power, but a quantum computer will not replace a single device, but rather an entire server farm.